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Between ‘enlightenment’ and ‘progressive enlightenment’ there is only an elusive difference, because illumination takes time – and feeds on itself, because enlightenment is self-confirming, its revelations ‘self-evident’, and because a retrograde, or reactionary, ‘dark enlightenment’ amounts almost to intrinsic contradiction.To become enlightened, in this historical sense, is to recognize, and then to pursue, a guiding light.Furthermore, unlike a renaissance, there is no need for an enlightenment to recall what was lost, or to emphasize the attractions of return.The elementary acknowledgement of enlightenment is already in miniature. Hayek, who refused to describe himself as a conservative, famously settled instead upon the term ‘Old Whig’, which – like ‘classical liberal’ (or the still more melancholy ‘remnant’) – accepts that progress isn’t what it used to be.Liberalism rejected the prevailing social and political norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy, and the Divine Right of Kings.The 17th-century philosopher John Locke is often credited with founding liberalism as a distinct philosophical tradition.

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Crime and deviance are considered predictable behaviors that society has not curtailed.The 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe, South America; it was well-established alongside Republicanism in the United States.Before 1920 the main ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism then faced major ideological challenges from new opponents, fascism and communism.Some control theories emphasize the developmental processes during childhood by which internal constraints develop.Social control theories, however, focus primarily on external factors and the processes by which they become effective.Once certain enlightened truths have been found self-evident, there can be no turning back, and conservatism is pre-emptively condemned – predestined — to paradox. What could an Old Whig be, if not a reactionary progressive? Of course, plenty of people already think they know what reactionary modernism looks like, and amidst the current collapse back into the 1930s their concerns are only likely to grow.Basically, it’s what the ‘F’ word is for, at least in its progressive usage.Deviance and crime occur because of inadequate constraints.For social control theory, the underlying view of human nature includes the conception of free will, thereby giving offenders the capacity of choice, and responsibility for their behavior.Unlike most criminology theories that purport to explain why people offend, control theory offers the justification for why people obey rules.Control theory provides an explanation for how behavior conforms to that which is generally expected in society.